There are countless details that determine if a state statute covers a certain crime, when the clock actually starts ticking, whether or not there are rules that can extend the state statute, and various other rules that can affect the state statutes.
There are a lot of variables. vlog started to say it. i looked into this (FL statutes) about 5 years ago. I was concerned about former friends reporting something about me maliciously, which they had threatened to do. So I wanted to know how long it would be before I was "safe".
I'm not a lawyer and this isn't legal advice. It's just meant to show how I think it works so it makes sense to you.
The basic idea seems not to be giving a break to someone who committed a minor crime. It has more to do with the court's expectation of being able to support charges after time has passed. It's balanced with how bad a crime it is. Heinous crimes, (the only one I KNOW about is murder) have no time limitation. You can be charged any time it is discovered. Some crimes that are hard to see like financial crimes start the clock ticking when the crime is discovered, with some caveats (I wasn't that interested in this caterogy so don't know much detail).
Other crimes, many felonies without actual victims, for example (but not all) seem to have 2 or 3 year SOL.
The way you find it in FL is to look up "Limitations". There's no "Statute of Limitations". The limitations are defined and described in a place titled roughly "time limitations".
Once you find the time limitation regarding the crime of interest, you also need to know about "tolling". Tolling is the stopping of the clock under some circumstances. For example, if you are known to be unavailable for prosecution for a period of time, the clock will stop (your time limitation will toll). That's so you can't just wait out being tried for charges against you by being unavailable. It's murky to me exactly what stops the clock. You'll have to look this up in your own state's (or in the federal) statutes.
There are other things that can stop the clock. What it seems to amount to is if you don't do anything to make yourself unavailable or to delay any part of the process then the clock won't stop. In other words, the prosecutor or police can't just stop it arbitrarily.
Check your own statutes out though. I remember it being quite a bit of reading to ferret it out.
In most states it's 5 to 7yrs pending on severity,and on a murder case it's on there forever. I know this because I was convicted on a murder case in 1996 and it's still comes up on a background check.